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Charles VII "The Victorus", King of France
Roi de France (1422-1461) creating a strong army and uniting most of the country under one French king. He established the University of Poitiers in 1432 and his policies brought some economic prosperity to the citizens. Although his leadership was sometimes marked by indecisiveness, hardly any other leader left a nation so much better improved than when he came on the scene.
"the Dauphin in Shakespeare's Henry V"eldest surviving son of King Charles VI. When his father died in 1422, the French throne did not pass to Charles but to the infant King Henry VI of England, who was his nephew. The English inheritance had been stipulated by the Treaty of Troyes (1420), which ended a phase of the Hundred Years' War. Northern France was thereafter ruled by John of Lancaster, regent for Henry, and southern France was governed by Charles, who was called the Dauphin. During the next six years, the English, strengthened by an alliance with Philip the Good, the powerful duke of Burgundy, scored several major military victories. The tide of the war changed when Joan of Arc lifted the siege of Orléans and won the Battle of Patay in the spring of 1429. Charles was crowned king of France on July 17, 1429, in Rheims Cathedral. In 1435, when Duke Philip abandoned the English cause and formed an alliance with Charles, a French victory seemed inevitable. The king entered Paris in 1436. In the following years the English lost all their French possessions except Calais. The last battle of the Hundred Years' War, a disastrous defeat for the English, was fought at Castillon (now in Gironde Department) on July 17, 1453. Charles was not a strong monarch, but he reformed the military, instituted sound fiscal policies, and encouraged trade. He was succeeded by his son Louis XI, who had been in revolt against his father since 1446.
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